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For the authors

 

Romania

Ministry of National Education

1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia

Faculty of Orthodox Theology

Romania, 510207, Alba-Iulia, 1 Decembrie 1918 Blvd, 13, Phone/Fax: 0258835901, www.fto.ro, e-mail: teologialba@yahoo.com

THE REDACTION METHODOLOGY OF A SCIENTIFIC PAPER OR STUDY

 

ORIGINALITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

Altarul Reîntregirii is a triannual scientific journal in which studies, research and scientific papers regarding theology, religion, history, philology, sociology, etc., are published. Altarul Reîntregirii gives priority to original studies which have not been published anywhere else and which prove to be original and new. Altarul Reîntregirii only encourages scientific discussions which are well argued as well as scientifically constructive and recommends the avoidance of personal disputes. By sending an article to Altarul Reîntregirii, the authors understand that they take full responsibility for the content and the ideas that are expressed there, which by no means represent Altarul Reîntregirii’s official position and neither that of the Faculty of Orthodox Theology or of the Orthodox Archbishopric of Alba-Iulia.

ON CHOOSING, DOCUMENTING, AND REDACTING A PAPER

I. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER/STUDY

  1. The list of abbreviations (optional) must reflect the abbreviations that were frequently used by the author in the paper/study.
  2. The introduction (at least half a page) has the purpose of informing the reader about the content and the objectives of the paper/study.
  3. The content of the writing (12-15 pages; a 40.000-character limit) refers to the chapters, paragraphs and subparagraphs which compose the paper/study, structured in a logical concatenation and without turning the text into a collection of quotes. The number of units (chapters/paragraphs/subparagraphs) must not be exaggerated, and the writing must be divided in units in a way that reflects unitarily the content of the studied theme.
  4. The conclusions (1-2 pages) contain the succinct presentation of the results that were obtained within the paper/study, concluding whether the work hypothesis was confirmed or not (there can be negative conclusions). Problems that remain unsolved will also be mentioned, as well as suggestions regarding the possible future research that can be done on that same theme. It is recommended to point out the original aspects, the advantages, and the limits of the offered solutions of the theme.
  5. The addenda represent an optional part of the paper/study which usually completes the existing applicative part within the chapters, containing charts, images, source codes, etc.
  6. The bibliography contains the list of all the sources of information used by the author to write the study/paper. The credibility of a paper/study is tightly linked to these bibliographical references, which show how well informed is the author concerning the actuality and necessity of the work that he presents.

II. THE REDACTION OF THE PAPER/STUDY

  1. General norms

The materials sent for publishing will be written in Times New Roman, 12, with diacritics, and the footnotes’ font size will be 10. The papers/studies will be mandatorily joined by (even the ones written in English) an abstract written in English (300-500 words/approximately 15 text lines), as well as by a set of keywords.

The title of the paper/study will be presented in English and will be joined by a shorter variant that can be published in the running title (50 characters). The paper/study that contains words written using a non-Latin alphabet (Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arab, etc.) will be joined by a file containing the used font.

The texts written in Greek, Hebrew, Slavonic, or other languages which do not use the Latin alphabet will be joined by a file with the program used to write it and the required font. We have the right not to publish materials which do not correspond to the norms regarding their scientific redaction or if their content is irrelevant for scientific research.

The papers and studies published in the Altarul Reîntregirii scientific journal are protected by the current legal norms regarding copyright. Materials there published can be reproduced only without commercial purposes; that is, having an educational or a scientific purpose. For any other purposes, the material’s reproduction can be done only with the written permission of the editorial board or of the third persons which have received the permission to distribute them.  The authors must understand that, for materials which do not belong to them to be published (parts of works, texts, images, graphics, partitures, charts, etc.), they have the moral duty to obtain publishing rights from their authors and to accord them to the AR editorial board.

The editorial board does not take responsibility for possible law infringements. For non-English authors, the texts will be corrected (remuneratively) by a person that was agreed upon by the AR publishing house.

  1. Formats

Page layout: A4, # margins: 3 cm, left; 2 cm down, 2 cm up, 2 cm right; portrait; # nonmirrored margins.

Paragraph formatting: # font: Times New Roman; size 12 for text and size 10 for the footnotes; # alignment: left-right (justified); # spacing: 1,5  (the author must leave two blank lines before and after the titles of the chapters and only one blank line before and after the titles of the subchapters); # the alignment of new chapters: 1,25 cm (Paragraph – Indentation – Special – First line: by 1.25 cm).

Titles and subtitles: # Chapter titles: uppercase, bold, TmsNR 14, centered; # Subchapter titles: lowercase, bold, TmsNR 12, aligned at 1, 25 cm; Class 2, 3, etc. subchapter titles: lowercase, italic, TmsNR 12, left alignment and numbered as a hierarchical list (1.1. xxx; 1.2. xxxxxx; 1.3.: xxxx; 1.3.1. xxxxxxx; 1.3.2. xxxxxx; 1.3.2.1 xxxxxx etc.). When writing longer titles and subtitles, one should be attentive at keeping some verbal units in each line.

Quotations are marked only by quotation marks. Romanian quotation marks („…”) will be used to highlight quotations. For quotations within quotations, the following rule must be used: „… «…» …”. English (“…”) or French («…») quotation marks can be used only in texts written in said languages. Quotations that occupy more than five lines of text will be retracted with 1 cm from the margins and will be separated from the text by a blank line, before and after the quotation. In the case in which some citations fragment the work too much, they can be moved to the footnotes where they have the role to complete and clarify the affirmations of the base text. In general, it is recommended to quote the main sources from the collection volumes or from their authorized translation (PG, PL, SC, PSB, etc.) and NOT through modern authors (PG, apud Stăniloae…).

  1. Footnotes and bibliographical references

Along with the list of bibliographical references (the bibliography), notes and bibliographical references form the critical apparatus of the work. With some exceptions (1), the note will be placed at the word’s upper right corner before the punctuation sign. These will be written continuously and will be placed at the page’s footer, not at the end of the writing. The notes and bibliographical references will only be written at the page’s footer, in the same order in which they show up in the text and they will be numbered with Arabic numerals. Every footnote and bibliographical reference must end with a period (.). (2)

Footnotes (3) are explanations or comments regarding some information given in the base text. They are secondary information and excursions, so they are placed in the page’s footer in order not to interrupt the cursivity of lecture and that of the ideas. Surely, footnotes can also contain references to the aforementioned bibliography from which the information was extracted.

Bibliographical references are indications regarding the identification of the places from which the author extracted information or arguments to use them in the base text.

The succession of information in a bibliographical reference is: The name (4) and family name (5) of the author or authors (6), or of the ones that coordinated the volume (ed./eds.), the title and subtitle of the work, the number of the volume if necessary (+ the collection’s title, if there is one), the translator and other indications (for example, the maker of the introductive study, of the index or of the footnotes, etc.), the place of publishing or sine loco (s. l.), the publishing house (Name of the publishing house Publishing House), the date of publishing or sine anno (s. a.), the page or pages (p.) from where the reference was taken. Optionally, the titles of the works written in foreign languages can be translated and placed between square brackets […], after the original title. For Patristic sources, from collections with international value (Migne, Sources Chrétiennes), it is necessary to mention the column/columns.

Examples:

Leonid Uspensky, Teologia icoanei [Théologie de l’icône], trad. Teodor Baconski, Bucharest, Anastasia Publishing House, 2004, p. 98.

Clement of Alexandria, Pedagogul, PG (Patrologia Graeaca edited by J. P. Migne) vol. VIII, col. 156 C şi 633 B [translation by D. Fecioru in PSB vol. 4, Bucharest, Institutul Biblic și de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române Publishing House, 1982].

Quoting a study/paper of a periodical publication: Author’s name and family name „Title and subtitle of the paper/study”, (written normally, within quotation marks), in Name of the journal (italic, without quotation marks), number of the fascicle/calendar year and number of the page/pages the quotation was taken from.

Ene Branişte, „Liturghia Darurilor mai Înainte Sfinţite”, in Studii Teologice, 3-4/1958, p. 176-192.

Quoting a study, a chapter/section of a collective volume (for example, the proceedings of some scientifical sessions; their volumes; study volumes, etc.): after mentioning precisely the author and the title of the work, information will be indicated regarding the volume’s name and scientific manifestation, publishing place, publishing house, year and pages.

Ovidiu Pecican, „Penurie şi izolaţionism versus dezvoltare şi deschidere”, in Spiritualitate şi consumism în Europa unită, [the resumés of „Spiritualitate şi consumism în Europa unită” International Symposium, organized by the Faculty of Orthodox Theology of 1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia, 26-27 of April 2004], Alba-Iulia, Reîntregirea Publishing House, 2004, p. 25.

Digital sources are quoted mentioning the author, the title of the document, its precise digital address and last accessed time.

National Statistics Institute: Populația stabilă după principalele religii la recensământul din anul 2011 – rezultate preliminare (Chart nr. 8), available at http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/TS8.pdf (last accessed on 15.02.2017).

Neagoe Basarab, Învăţăturile lui Neagoe Basarab către fiul său Teodosie (digital edition), Bucureşti-Chişinău, Litera Publishing House, p. 28, available at http://tineretulortodox.md/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/ neagoe-invataturile.pdf (last accessed on 6.03.2017).

In the case of some books, volumes or publications posted on the web as digital copies or as PDF’s (whose form and pagination is identical to the original), quoting the database or the digital source is pointless.

  1. Rules for using terms like Idem, Ibidem, op. cit., apud and in the footnotes

Idem is a Latin pronoun which means “the same one” and it replaces the author’s name. It is used with cursive

Ibidem is a Latin adverb which means “in the same place”. This term is used when we reference a work that was already cited in the precedent footnote. Unlike “idem”, this term is written only in italic. In Romanian, the shortcut “Ibid.” is not used, as it is in English. The use of “ibidem” is completely excluded when in the precedent footnote there are multiple works cited.

The use of abbreviated titles excludes using cit. (opus citatum, meaning “quoted work”), used for citing the same work (always the last one) of an author mentioned in a precedent footnote (even though not in the immediate last one, a case in which Ibidem is used). In general, it is used when the author is cited with a single work. For this reason, the use of this outdated form of quoting is excluded.

Apud is a Latin preposition that means “after” or “at”, meaning “taken from”. It is used in the case of an indirect quotation of a source or work, taken from another author, after the formula: the author and the taken title, year of apparition, place, page, apud author and used title, year of apparition, place and page.

The Latin shortcut confer, which comes from the verb “confero”, meaning “to compare”, is used for referencing another place or places from other sources or other points of view, different from the ones of the last reference’s author (similar or different).

For example, we are giving a succession of bibliographical references (1-6, 10-13), footnotes (7-9) and digital sources (14-15).

Leonid Uspensky, Teologia icoanei, transl. by Teodor Baconski, Bucharest, Anastasia Publishing House, 2004, p. 98.

Ibidem, p. 6. [meaning Leonid Uspensky, Teologia icoanei, transl. by Teodor Baconski, Bucharest, Anastasia Publishing House, 2004, p. 6.]

Alexandru Ciorănescu, Viitorul trecutului. Utopie şi literatură, transl. by Ileana Cantuniari, Bucharest, Cartea Românească Publishing House, 1996, p. 222.

Nicolae Breban, Riscul în cultură, Jassy, Polirom Publishing House, 1997, p. 15.

Ene Branişte, „Liturghia Darurilor mai Înainte Sfinţite”, in Studii Teologice, 3-4/1958, p. 176-192.

Idem [meaning Ene Branişte], Liturgica generală, Bucharest, Institutul Biblic și de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române Publishing House, 1982, p. 85.

Aspects regarding the issue of personality development of school-going children are found in various specialized works. For understandable reasons, the ones that appeared before 1989 do not treat the spiritual aspects of raising and educating children.

Details regarding the relationship and mechanisms created between the icon and the liturgical word can be deepened by consulting the following work: Dumitru A. Vanca, Icoană şi Cateheză, Alba-Iulia, Reîntregirea Publishing House, 2005. Specially the chapters Knowledge through word and image (p. 40-68) and Analogy and complementariness (p. 169-192).

Linia aceasta cu privire la modul de înţelegere a imaginilor sfinte, radical diferită de cea a răsăritenilor, se datorează mai cu seamă teologilor franci care – traducând şi analizând documentele Sinodului VII Ecumenic (Niceea, 787) – au alcătuit un text cunoscut sub numele Libri Carolini. Aceştia, deşi nu resping hotărârile sinodului, par să justifice icoana doar în funcţie de atributul său didactic, istoric şi estetic, neglijând în special funcţia sa liturgic-sacramentală. (cf. „Libri Carolini”, în Catholic Encyclopedia, disponibil la http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03371b.htm (accesat la data de 18.02.2017). This line of thinking regarding the way of understanding holy images, radically different than the one of the easterners, is owed mostly to Frankish theologians which – translating and analysing the documents of the Seventh Ecumenical Council (Nicaea, 787) – have written a text known as “Libri Carolini”. These, even though they do not refuse the synod’s decisions, seem to justify the icon only in terms of its didactical, historical, and aesthetical aspect, neglecting its liturgical and sacramental function (cf. “Libri Carolini”, in Catholic Encyclopedia, available at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03371b.htm (last accessed on 18.02.2017)

Leonid Uspensky, cit., p. 247.

Emil Cioran, Istorie şi utopie, Bucharest, Humanitas Publishing House, 1992, p. 48.

Feodor M. Dostoievski, Crimă şi pedeapsă, transl. by Ş. Velisar Teodoreanu and I. Dumbravă, critical apparatus by Ion Ianoşi, Bucharest, Cartea Românească Publishing House, 1981, p. 626.

Leonid Uspensky, cit., p. 225.

Concluziile Sfântului Sinod cu privire la desfășurarea și hotărârile Sfântului și Marelui Sinod al Bisericii Ortodoxe din Creta (16-26 iunie 2016), available at http://basilica.ro/concluziile-sfantului-sinod-cu-privire-la-desfasurarea-si-hotararile-sfantului-si-marelui-sinod-al-bisericii-ortodoxe-din-creta-16-26-iunie-2016/ (last accessed on 18.02.2017).

Recensământul populației şi locuințelor 2002, available at http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/RPL2002INS/index_rpl2002.htm (last accessed on 15.02.2016).

 

III. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST (general list of bibliographical references)

It is the list of all the works used within the thesis, which the author has used in documenting and constructing the concepts, ideas, or arguments. Sometimes it is mandatory that the list should be enlarged even with the writings from which no quotations have been extracted, but which the author has used for understanding the studied theme. For honesty and identification of the used sources, it is needed for each entry to contain all the information about the author and work as they appear on the title page.

  1. General rules regarding the list of bibliographical references:

The list of bibliographical references is placed at the end of the work, having the names of the authors ordered alphabetically, without academical or professional titles, numbered with Arab numerals, placed before the addenda (see below the example of a list of bibliographical references);

In the case of saints, the appellative “Saint” will be written before the name, and not after (for example: Saint John Chrysostom, Homilies at …, and not: John Chrysostom, Saint, Homilies at…), and the bibliographical reference will be placed before the letter “I” from the list, depending on the first name “John”;

In conformity with the norms of the Romanian Academy, the succession of information is the following: Author’s family name, first name, the title of the work (written in italic), volume, place, publishing house, year. In the case of a volume with up to three authors, the succession of names will be separated with a slash (/), but in the case in which there are more than three authors (or if it’s not clarified in the title page), the first author will be mentioned followed by the expression “et alii”, followed by the title of the book and by the other bibliographical references.

The name of the editors will be mentioned before the title of the writing. In the case in which there are more than three editors/coordinators, see above.

For the works translated into Romanian or the ones with an introductory study, preface, etc., after the writing’s title and number of the volume, the translator’s name and the name of the introductory study’s or preface’s author, in the same order in which they appear.

For a study or publication that has appeared in a periodical, the referencing method will be the following: Author’s family name, first name, „Title of the article” (regular and within quotation marks), in Name of the publication (italic), number/year, pages.

Toroczkai, Ciprian Iulian, „Rolul diaconiţelor şi problema hirotoniei femeii”, in Revista Teologică, 3/2011, p. 183-193.

Example of a list of bibliographical references:

BIBLIOGRAPHY (or Bibliographical list or List of bibliographical references)

  1. SOURCES

Biblia sau Sfânta Scriptură (Jubilee edition of the Holy Synod) Bucharest, Institutul Biblic şi de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române Publishing House, 2001.

*** Ceaslov, Sibiu, 1985.

*** Evanghelia, Bucharest, Tipografia Cărţilor Bisericeşti, 1895.

Saint Maxim the Confessor, Ambigua [coll. PSB, vol. 80], transl., introduction, and notes by Dumitru Stăniloae, Bucharest, Institutul Biblic şi de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române Publishing House, 1983.

  1. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS

*** (The) Catholic Encyclopedia. An International Work of Reference, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1913 sq.

Branişte, Ene / Branişte, Ecaterina, Dicţionar enciclopedic de cunoştinţe religioase, Caransebeş, Diocesan Publishing House, 2001.

Branişte, Ene, Liturgica specială (manual pentru institutele teologice), Bucharest, Institutul Biblic şi de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române Publishing House, 1985.

Leclercq, Henry / Cabrol, Fernand (eds.), Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1907 sq.

  1. SECONDARY LITERATURE (8)

Monographies

Schonborn, Cristoph, Icoana lui Hristos, transl. Vasile Răducă, Bucharest, Anastasia Publishing House, 1996.

Uspensky, Leonid, Teologia icoanei, transl. Teodor Baconski, Bucharest, Anastasia Publishing House, 2004.

Studies and articles

Branişte, Ene, „Liturghia Darurilor mai Înainte Sfinţite”, in Studii Teologice, 3-4/1958, p. 176-192.

Breban, Nicolae, Riscul în cultură, Jassy, Polirom Publishing House, 1997.

*** Cinstirea Sfintelor Icoane în Ortodoxie. Retrospectivă istorică, momente cruciale de stabilire a teologiei icoanei şi de criză majoră, [Anual sesión of the Romanian Comission of Study and of History of Christianity. Saint Paisios of Neamt Sociocultural Centre September 13-15, 2007, Neamt Monastery], Trinitas Publishing House, Jassy, 2008.

Cioran, Emil, Istorie şi utopie, Bucharest, Humanitas Publishing House, 1992.

Feodor M. Dostoievski, Crimă şi pedeapsă, Ş. Velisar Teodoreanu and I. Dumbravă, critical apparatus by Ion Ianoşi, Bucharest, Cartea Românească Publishing House, 1981.

Noica, Rafail, Cultura duhului, Alba-Iulia, Reîntregirea Publishing House, 2002.

*** Spiritualitate şi consumism în Europa unită, [the resumés of „Spiritualitate şi consumism în Europa unită” International Symposium, organized by the Faculty of Orthodox Theology of 1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia, 26-27 of April 2004]. [this volumen will appear in the bibliographical list where the letter S is]

Uspensky, Leonid, et alii, Ce este icoana?, transl. Vasile Manea, Alba-Iulia, Reîntregirea Publishing House, 2005.

  1. DIGITAL SOURCES

The Apostolic Biblie, Hardback ed., available at http://biblehub.com (last accessed on 15.02.2017). [appearing at letter B]

Concluziile Sfântului Sinod cu privire la desfășurarea și hotărârile Sfântului și Marelui Sinod al Bisericii Ortodoxe din Creta (16-26 iunie 2016), available at http://basilica.ro/concluziile-sfantului-sinod-cu-privire-la-desfasurarea-si-hotararile-sfantului-si-marelui-sinod-al-bisericii-ortodoxe-din-creta-16-26-iunie-2016/ (last accessed on 18.02.2017).

Institutul Naţional de Statistică, Recensământul populației şi locuințelor 2002, available at http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/RPL2002INS/index_rpl2002.htm (last accessed on 15.02.2016).

 

IV. ADDENDA, CHARTS, AND IMAGES

  1. Addenda are numbered in a crescendo throughout the whole work (Addendum 1, Addendum 2…) and it is recommended to add a descriptive title (for example: Addendum 1: List of bishops of Wallachia). Each addendum will be mentioned at least once throughout the paper/study. Before the addenda set, a page in which only “ADDENDA” is written, centred, in the middle of the page, written in TmsNR, 20, bold.
  2. Charts, images, and figures (images, diagrams, graphics, screenshots, etc.) will contain a number (hierarchical) and a descriptive title (for example: Picture 1: The Mother of God – Odigitria, 14th century, Dintr-un Lemn Monastery). If the case demands it, figures and charts within the text must be inserted into a centred chart. It is recommended to not place figures or charts before their first mention in the text. References will be marked in the base text like this: Addendum 1, or: fig. 3-6 and Chart 4 (written normally); Charts, figures and pictures must be joined by a legend (for example: Chart 4: List of feast day icons  from the Alba Iulia Archbishopric Collection or Chart 12: Alba Iulia population count by religion).

 

INDICATIONS REGARDING RESEARCH ETHICS AND PLAGIARISM PREVENTION

Studies/papers must be original, and they must respect the matters regarding intellectual property and antiplagiarism rules. What counts as plagiarism is the appropriation or the copying, either total or partial, of the ideas or works of another person and presenting them as being one’s personal creations. In other words, artistical or scientifical theft.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines “to plagiarize” in the following manner: “To commit literary theft; to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source”.

Types of plagiarism:

  1. Complete takeover – The author presents full passages from other work, word by word, as if they are their own creation.
  2. Partial copying – The author copies considerable parts from a work and presents them as if they were their own.
  3. Mixed copying – The author copies paragraphs or mixed phrases, from different works, without mentioning the sources, so the track of the original source is lost.
  4. Masked copying – The author takes que argumentation line, the examples and the other elements that the source contains, but modifies some expressions, the order of the paragraphs or other elements in order to make harder the identification of the source.
  5. Copying through retelling – The author retells the work, without copying its content word by word, retranslating it through synonyms or analogous formulations.
  6. Auto-plagiarism – The author takes integrally or massively from a work of their own, a previous one, published as a book or as a paper (classic or digital format).
  7. Incomplete referencing – The author mentions the name of a source but it doesn’t include its specific information (title, year, publishing house, place, page); this way, the correctness of the work cannot be verified and passages which have been taken integrally previously or afterwards their first mentioning are hidden.
  8. Incorrect referencing – The author offers inexact information regarding the quoted source, making its identification and verification impossible.
  9. Masked quotation – The author quotes correctly the source between quotation marks, but then takes full paragraphs from the source without quotation marks. Even though they attribute to the source a passage from their text, they mask the fact that they have taken, without referencing them, other passages from the same source.
  10. The collage – The author quotes correctly the sources, but the whole text is nothing more than a collage made from different sources, without a personal contribution from the author.

Texts from different works can be exactly reproduced, even the ones translated by the author or taken from the internet, without it being considered plagiarism, if they are written within quotation marks and the precise reference is present. Reformulating in one’s own words of the texts which pertain to other authors or summarizing their ideas without mentioning the sources that generated them is considered plagiarism.

The procedure regarding the recension of the materials received in order to be published can be seen at the PEER REVIEW section.

After printing it, the author has the right to request and receive at least an exemplar of the journal’s number in which their study has been published.

  1. In the situation in which the quoted fragment is not framed by explanations of the author or is constituted by long phrases, unfragmented, the footnote indicator is placed after the period or the final quotation marks.
  2. In the Romanian system, the punctuation sign used to separate indication is the comma (,), not the period (.).
  3. Footnotes can be introduced with the “Ctrl+Alt+F” combination.
  4. The first name and the last name of the author will be given integrally; the initials alone are NOT accepted.
  5. The family name will be written in small caps (Ctrl+Shift+K).
  6. If there are more than 2-3 co-authors, only the first one will be mentioned, followed by the et alii syntagma (meaning and the others).
  7. The character and thematic of the sources must be adapted concerning the general subject. For example, for a theme that treats the cult in the 19th century, the list of sources will be also extended upon the cult books of reference used in research or upon a collection of renown ancient texts. (nu am găsit în text referința a șaptea).
  8. The monographies are books or collective volumes which treat exclusively a theme (mono/graphe), the subject/theme debated also in the doctoral thesis.